What is Arduino?
Arduino is a user-friendly electronics platform that is publicly accessible, meaning anyone can see, modify, and distribute the code as they see fit.
Arduino boards can read inputs such as light on a sensor or a finger on a button, and turn them into outputs that activate a motor and turn on an LED.
The Arduino Uno is the standard version of Arduino that is commonly used.
Arduino Uno Basic Components
A breadboard is used to build and test circuits quickly before finalizing any circuit design. The breadboard has many holes into which circuit components like ICs (An integrated circuit (IC), sometimes called a chip, microchip or microelectronic circuit) and resistors can be inserted.
ElectroRules. (2019). Introduction to Resistors. ElectroRules. https://www.electrorules.com/introduction-to-resistors/
As the name suggests, resistors resist the flow of electricity and the higher the value of the resistor, the more it resists and the less electrical current will flow through it.
We often use inputs and outputs to describe how a system works. An input is something that goes into the system, while an output is something that comes out of the system. Understanding inputs and outputs can help us understand how different systems work, from plants to machines to the human body. It's an important concept to learn in science, as it helps us make sense of the world around us.
An LED is a small light (it stands for "light emitting diode") that works with relatively little power.
The Arduino board has one built-in on digital pin 13.
CircuitBread. (2021). RGB LED color mixing [Photograph]. CircuitBread. Link
The RGB LED is a type of LED that can produce many colors by combining red, green, and blue. It is made up of three individual LEDs, each one corresponding to one of the primary colors. These three LEDs are inside a single casing, and the RGB LED has four leads, one for each color, plus a common cathode or anode, depending on the type.
The RGB LED will flash in different colors every second.
Micro servos are small motors used in Arduino Uno projects to control small movements with precision. They are commonly used in robotics, automation, and remote control systems.
A buzzer or beeper is an audio signaling device. Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarm devices and timers.
The red wire is for digital pins.
The black wire is for ground (GND).
The push button has three pins: VCC (connect to 5V), GND, and OUT. The OUT pin should be connected to one of the analog pins. Ensure that your code and circuit connection are aligned, even if you choose only one analog pin.
Use the push button to control LED.
LDR (Light Dependent Resistor)
The LDR is a special type of resistor that allows higher voltages to pass through it (low resistance) whenever there is a high intensity of light and passes a low voltage (high resistance) whenever it is dark.
Use LDR as ‘light sensor’.
Thermistors are variable resistors that change their resistance with temperature. They are classified by the way their resistance responds to temperature changes.
Connecting a water sensor to an Arduino is a great way to detect a leak, spill, flood, rain, etc. It can be used to detect the presence, the level, the volume and/or the absence of water. While this could be used to remind you to water your plants, there is a better Grove sensor for that. The sensor has an array of exposed traces, which read LOW when water is detected.
An ultrasonic sensor is a device that uses sound waves to detect objects and measure distances. Ultrasonic sensors are commonly used in robotics and automation and can be easily integrated with an Arduino board to create interactive projects.
In this section, we will explore three systems that utilize the Arduino Uno board and the inputs and outputs we have previously covered.
These systems will demonstrate how the Arduino can be used to control and interact with the physical world.
Treasure Protection System
Smart Home System (with Machine Learning)
Machine Learning Intro
The project doesn't work? Have you checked the following items?
Do the numbers in the code align with the physical circuit connection?
Are LEDs' pins connected correctly (longer one is positive, shorter one is negative)?
Have you used resistors?
Have you checked how breadboards connect?
Is your Arduino Uno updated with the firmware?
Have you tried different ports on your computers?